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TPO  TPO 09 综合写作

所属分类: 环境
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Reading Part:
Car manufacturers and governments have been eagerly seeking a replacement for the automobile's main source of power, the internal-combustion engine. By far the most promising alternative source of energy for cars is the hydrogen-based fuel-cell engine, which uses hydrogen to create electricity that, in turn, powers the car. Fuel-cell engines have several advantages over internal-combustion engines and will probably soon replace them.

One of the main problems with the internal-combustion engine is that it relies on petroleum, either in the form of gasoline or diesel fuel. Petroleum is a finite resource; someday, we will run out of oil. The hydrogen needed for fuel-cell engines cannot easily be depleted. Hydrogen can be derived from various plentiful sources, including natural gas and even water. The fact that fuel-cell engines utilize easily available, renewable resources makes them particularly attractive.

Second, hydrogen-based fuel cells are attractive because they will solve many of the world's pollution problems. An unavoidable by-product of burning oil is carbon dioxide, and carbon dioxide harms the environment. On the other hand, the only byproduct of fuel-cell engines is water.

Third, fuel-cell engines will soon be economically competitive because people will spend less money to operate a fuel-cell engine than they will to operate an internal-combustion engine. This is true for one simple reason: a fuel-cell automobile is nearly twice as efficient in using its fuel as an automobile powered by an internal-combustion engine is. In other words, the fuel-cell powered car requires only half the fuel energy that the internal-combustion powered car does to go the same distance.

中文翻译:
汽车制造商和政府都在积极地寻找内燃机的代替品,而目前内燃机是汽车主要的动力源。目前为止,氢燃料电池发动机是最有竞争力的汽车动力代替品。氢燃料电池发动机是用氢作燃料产生电能以充当汽车的动力。鉴于燃料电池发动机相对于内燃机发动机优点多多,因而可以很快替代内燃机。
内燃机发动机的问题之一就是对于石油的依赖,而石油具体的形式是汽油或者柴油。石油是不可再生资源,总有一天会用尽的。而燃料电池发动机所使用的氢则不是那么容易消耗完的。氢有多种来源,比如天然气和水。燃料电池发动机很容易得到,而这种能源的可再生性使其特别具有吸引力。
第二,氢燃料电池发动机还可以在全球范围内解决污染问题,这也是其具有吸引力的原因。使用石油不可避免的副产品就是二氧化碳,这是对环境有害的气体。而与此同时,燃料电池发动机唯一的副产品就是水。
第三,因为燃料电池发动机的使用费用比内燃机发动机低,燃料电池发动机很快就会在价格上很有竞争力了。这个道理是很简单的。燃料电池汽车的能量利用率几乎是使用内燃机发动机的汽车的两倍。换句话说,行驶相同的距离,使用燃料电池发动机汽车只需要消耗内燃机汽车的一半能量。
Listening Part:
Question:
Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.
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