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Reading Part:
Ethanol fuel, made from plants such as corn and sugar cane, has been advocated by some people as an alternative to gasoline in the United States. However, many critics argue that ethanol is not a good replacement for gasoline for several reasons.
First, the increased use of ethanol fuel would not help to solve one of the biggest environmental problems caused by gasoline use: global warming. Like gasoline, ethanol releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when it is burned for fuel and carbon dioxide is greenhouse gas: it helps trap heat in the atmosphere. Thus, ethanol offers no environmental advantage over gasoline.
Second, the production of significant amounts of ethanol would dramatically reduce the amount of plants available for uses other fuel. For example, much of the corn now grown in the United States is used to feed farm animals such as cows and chickens. It is estimated that if ethanol were used to satisfy just 10 percent of the fuel needs in the United States, more than 60 percent of the corn currently grown in the united stated would have to be used to produce ethanol. If most of the corn were used to produce ethanol, a substantial source of food for animals would disappear.
Third, ethanol fuel will never be able to compete with gasoline on price. Although the prices of ethanol and gasoline for the consumer are currently about the same, this is only because of the help in the form of tax subsidies given to ethanol producers by the United States government. These tax subsidies have cost the United States government over $11 billion in the past 30 years. If the United States government were to stop helping producers in this way, the price of ethanol would increase greatly.

中文翻译:
乙醇燃料是从玉米以下是或者甘蔗之类的植物中提取的。在美国,一些人提倡使用乙醇燃料来代替汽油。然而,很多评论家认为一些原因使得乙醇燃料不是良好的汽油替代品。
首先,使用汽油带来的最大的问题之一是全球变暖,而对于乙醇燃料使用的增加并不能解决这个问题。同汽油一样,乙醇燃烧后向大气释放二氧化碳,而二氧化碳是温室气体。它会保持大气层内的温度。因而,相对于汽油来说,乙醇并没有环保优势。
第二,乙醇产品的大量增加会导致用于其他目的作物数量减少。比如,在美国很多的玉米都是用来作动物饲料来喂养牛和鸡。可以推测,如果乙醇只满足美国对燃料需要的10%,那么美国就要用现在玉米产量的60%用来制造乙醇燃料。如果把玉米产量的大部分用来生产乙醇燃料的话,那么家畜主要的食物来源就不复存在了。
第三,乙醇燃料燃料在价格上永远无法与汽油竞争。虽然目前对消费者来说,乙醇燃料和汽油的相差无几,但是只是因为美国政府以税收补贴的形式补助乙醇燃料制造商。这个税收补贴在过去的三十年花掉了美国政府110亿美元。如果美国政府停止以这种形式帮助制造商,那么乙醇燃料的价格会大幅升高。
Listening Part:
Question:
Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.
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